Subsuming The 2nd Law Of Thermodynamics
-To The Other Side-

     "...The defining feature of a technological civilization is the capacity to intensively 'harvest' energy.  But the basic physics of energy, heat and work known as thermodynamics tell us that us that waste, or what we physicists call entropy, must be generated...  

     ... And what is true here is likely to be true on other planets as well.  ... Maybe we're not the only ones to hit a sustainability bottleneck.  Maybe not everyone — maybe no one — makes it to the other side."

Adam Frank; astrophysicist
[Is a Climate Disaster Inevitable?  2015]


Dr. Frank's article discusses the universal limits and some of the natural troubles innate to life — due to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.  Yes, the 2nd Law is powerful.
No, it is not absolute.


This website introduces my research into trans 2nd-law thermodynamics,
the "other side" of the 2nd Law.


    I use electrochemistry to explore the physics of equilibrium solute-concentration fluctuation within fluid solutions at rest in gravity.  The gravitational potential energies of the equilibrium fluctuations are causative of a steady-state nonequilibrium in simple two-electrode electrochemical cells — a finding that contradicts the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics and that sets an empirical and theoretical foundation in which the 2nd law is but a subset of phenomenon within a much broader set of thermodynamic possibilities.

     My research manuscript is entitled Testing the Definition of Thermodynamic Equilibrium; Part 1 - Systems in a Gravitational Field.  It was published in 2012 by the New Energy Foundation and the article can be viewed here in the "2012 Manuscript" tab, or downloaded in pdf "2012 Manuscript pdf".

    As with numerous similar experimental findings by other researchers around the world, the signals from the electrochemical cells are compelling, difficult to test, and extremely small in magnitude.  The task ahead is to bring the concepts alive with experimental systems that produce tangible output.

Also, mostly for mental health, I build lamps.
The lamps are in this website too.